The Fed Has a Tough Job as the Economy Is in Transition
- We believe the Fed will keep the fed funds rate at the 5.125% level well into 2024
- This roller coaster ride of data is a classic case of an economy in transition
- Throughout this, the Fed has remained singularly focused on bringing down inflation
It already has been a tumultuous year for the Fed, and it is only about one-third over. As 2023 came out of the starting gate, economic releases showed the economy had weakened in December, brought on by the Fed’s restrictive monetary policy and bad weather.
The data implied the Fed would not have to aggressively raise interest rates this year. Then, in February, as the January economic data was being released, it showed some sectors were roaring back.
First, the labor report had a blockbuster gain, with nonfarm payrolls increasing by 517,000 (it has since been revised to 472,000), reversing a long-standing downward trend (chart 1). The unemployment rate was 3.4%, a 54-year low. Then retail sales jumped 3.0% for the month, much stronger than the 2022 average monthly gain of just 0.5%. This showed that the consumer remained resilient despite higher interest rates. Finally, the inflation report showed that the deflationary trend was stagnating. As a result, the financial markets believed the Fed needed to increase interest rates more than was expected just a month earlier.
Then came March. The economic releases showed a more moderate rate of growth. This roller coaster ride of data is a classic case of an economy in transition. Although the pace of economic growth was on a downward trajectory, some areas were still affected by positive influences from the ripple effects of the pandemic and the government’s policy response.
The crosscurrents are extreme. On the weaker side, some critical sectors of the economy have responded to higher interest rates and the change in demand as consumers return to their pre-pandemic habits. Manufacturing and housing are showing moderate growth or declines.
Throughout this, the Fed has remained singularly focused on bringing down inflation. It has raised the federal funds rate at one of the fastest paces in recent history (chart 2).
The median level now stands at 5.125%, a full five percentage points higher than it was when the Fed undertook its interest rate increases just over a year ago. The monetary policy changes since last March are beginning to impact the economy. The lags can be long, variable and highly uncertain. The Fed appears to be taking a pause in interest rate increases. It needs time to observe the impact of the cumulative increase in interest rates on the economy. We believe the Fed will keep the federal funds rate at 5.125% throughout the year.
Figures shown are past results and are not an indication of future results.
The information presented does not involve the rendering of personalized investment, financial, legal or tax advice. This presentation is not an offer to buy or sell, or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell, any of the securities mentioned herein.
This document may contain forward-looking statements relating to the objectives, opportunities and future performance of the US market generally. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of such words as: “expect,” “estimated,” “potential” and other similar terms. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, estimates with respect to financial condition, results of operations, and success or lack of success of any particular investment strategy. All are subject to various factors, including, but not limited to, general and local economic conditions, changing levels of competition within certain industries and markets, changes in interest rates, changes in legislation or regulation, and other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory and technological factors affecting a portfolio’s operations that could cause actual results to differ materially from projected results. Such statements are forward-looking in nature and involve a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, and accordingly, actual results may differ materially from those reflected or contemplated in such forward-looking statements. These statements are based primarily upon a hypothetical set of assumptions applied to certain historical financial information that has been provided by third-party sources and, although believed to be reliable, the information has not been independently verified and its accuracy or completeness cannot be guaranteed. The opinions, projections, forecasts and forward-looking statements expressed are also valid as of the date of this document and are subject to change based on market and other conditions. Prospective investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements or examples. None of City National Rochdale nor any of its affiliates or principals nor any other individual or entity assumes any obligation to update any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, subsequent events or any other circumstances.
This information is not intended as a recommendation to invest in a particular asset class, strategy or product.
The information presented is for illustrative purposes only and based on various assumptions which may not be realized. No representation or warranty is made as to the reasonableness of the assumptions made or that all assumptions used have been stated or fully considered.
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S&P 500 Index: The S&P 500 Index, or Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, is a market-capitalization-weighted index of 500 leading publicly traded companies in the US It is not an exact list of the top 500 US companies by market cap because there are other criteria that the index includes.
Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index (LBUSTRUU): The Bloomberg Aggregate Bond Index or “the Agg” is a broad-based fixed-income index used by bond traders and the managers of mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) as a benchmark to measure their relative performance.
GT2 Govt, GT3 Govt, GT5 Govt, GT10 Govt, GT30 Govt: US Government Treasury Yields
DXY Index: The US dollar index (USDX) is a measure of the value of the US dollar relative to the value of a basket of currencies of the majori-ty of the US’s most significant trading partners.
Bloomberg US Investment Grade Corporate Bond Index:The Bloomberg US Investment Grade Corporate Bond Index measures the performance of investment grade, corporate, fixed-rate bonds with maturities of one year or more.
Bloomberg US Corporate High Yield Index:The Bloomberg US Corporate High Yield Index measures the performance of non-investment grade, US dollar-denominated, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bonds.
Bloomberg Municipal Bond Index: The Bloomberg US Municipal Bond Index measures the performance of investment grade, US dollar-denominated, long-term tax-exempt bonds.
Bloomberg Municipal High Yield Bond Index: The Bloomberg Municipal High Yield Bond Index measures the performance of non-investment grade, US dollar-denominated, and non-rated, tax-exempt bonds.
S&P Leveraged Loan Indexes (S&P LL indexes) are capitalization-weighted syndicated loan indexes based upon market weightings, spreads and interest payments. The S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan 100 Index (LL100) dates back to 2002 and is a daily tradable index for the US market that seeks to mirror the market-weighted performance of the largest institutional leveraged loans, as determined by criteria. Its ticker on Bloomberg is SPBDLLB.
IA SBBI US LT Government: The index measures the performance of US dollar-denominated bonds issued in the US investment-grade bond market including US and non-US corporate securities that have at least ten years to maturity and a credit rating of AAA/AA.
IA SBBI US LT Corporate: IA SBBI US Long Term Corporate Bond Index: The index measures the performance of US dollar denominated bonds issued in the US investment grade bond market including US and non US corporate securities that have at least ten years to maturity and a credit rating of AAA/AA.
ICE Bank of America MOVE Index: The MOVE index, or Merrill Lynch Option Volatility Estimate Index, is a gauge of interest rate volatility in the U.S. Treasury market. It is calculated from options prices, which reflect the collective expectations of market participants about future volatility. The index measures the implied volatility of U.S. Treasury options across various maturities.
Bloomberg US Corporate Bond Index: The Bloomberg Barclays US Corporate Bond Index measures the investment grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bond market. It includes USD-denominated securities publicly issued by US and non-US industrial, utility and financial issuers.
Bloomberg US Financial Institutions Capped Index: The index measures the performance of U.S. dollar-denominated publicly-issued investment-grade corporate bonds in the financial sector. The index is market-capitalization weighted with a 5% cap on any one issuer and a pro rata distribution of any excess weight across the remaining issuers in the Underlying Index.
Bloomberg US High Yield Index: The Bloomberg US Corporate High Yield Index measures the performance of non-investment grade, US dollar-denominated, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bonds.
Ice BofA High Yield USD Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index: the ICE BofA High Yield US Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index is a subset of the ICE BofA Emerging Markets Liquid Corporate Plus Index, which includes only securities rated BB1 or lower.
Bloomberg: LF98YW Index: The Bloomberg US Corporate High Yield Bond Index measures the USD-denominated, high yield, fixed-rate corporate bond market. Securities are classified as high yield if the middle rating of Moody’s, Fitch and S&P is Ba1/BB+/BB+ or below. Bonds from issuers with an emerging markets country of risk, based on Bloomberg EM country definition, are excluded.
“YW” is the ticker to pull the yield-to-worst on the index.
Bloomberg: LF98TRUU Index: The Bloomberg US Corporate High Yield Bond Index measures the USD-denominated, high yield, fixed-rate corporate bond market. Securities are classified as high yield if the middle rating of Moody’s, Fitch and S&P is Ba1/BB+/BB+ or below. Bonds from issuers with an emerging markets country of risk, based on Bloomberg EM country definition, are excluded. This is the total return index level.
Morningstar SPBDLLY Index: Yield to maturity time series of the Morningstar LSTA US Leveraged Loan 100 Index. The Morningstar LSTA US Leveraged Loan Index is a market-value weighted index designed to measure the performance of the US leveraged loan market.
Bloomberg Investment Grade Index: The Bloomberg US Investment Grade Corporate Bond Index measures the performance of investment grade, corporate, fixed-rate bonds with maturities of one year or more.
Yield to Worst (YTW) is the lower of the yield to maturity or the yield to call. It is essentially the lowest potential rate of return for a bond, excluding delinquency or default.
P/E Ratio: The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is the ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its earnings per share (EPS).
Quality Ranking: City National Rochdale Proprietary Quality Ranking is the weighted average sum of securities held in the strategy versus the S&P 500 at the sector level using the below formula.
City National Rochdale Proprietary Quality Ranking formula: 40% Dupont Quality (return on equity adjusted by debt levels), 15% Earnings Stability (volatility of earnings), 15% Revenue Stability (volatility of revenue), 15% Cash Earnings Quality (cash flow vs. net income of company) 15% Balance Sheet Quality (fundamental strength of balance sheet).
*Source: City National Rochdale proprietary ranking system utilizing MSCI and FactSet data. **Rank is a percentile ranking approach whereby 100 is the highest possible score and 1 is the lowest. The City National Rochdale Core compares the weighted average holdings of the strategy to the companies in the S&P 500 on a sector basis. As of September 30, 2022. City National Rochdale proprietary ranking system utilizing MSCI and FactSet data.
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